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Figure 1

Electroporation can be used to transfer nucleic acids, proteins and drugs into cells or to insert molecules into the cell’s membrane. Electric pulses are also commonly used to fuse cells together. Finally, application of similar but more numerous pulses induces cell death (modified from Heller, 2016)

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Figure 2

Fibrosarcoma cells transfected with a plasmid encoding green fluorescent protein 48 hours after electrotransfer. Cell nuclei are shown in blue. Video captured using a BZ-X Series biological fluorescence microscope (Keyence, Osaka, Japan).

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Figure 3

Changes in cytokine and chemokine protein expression after DNA electrotransfer into B16F10 melanoma tumors (modified from Heller, et al., 2010).

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Figure 4

The putative cytosolic DNA sensors ZBP1, p204 and DHX9 bind plasmid DNA 15 minutes to 4 hours after electrotransfer of backbone plasmid into myoblasts. This binding may induce secretion of signaling molecules (modified from Semenova, et al., 2019).

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Figure 5

Functional associations between ZBP1, p204 and DHX9, which physically bind plasmid DNA after transfection. The interaction between the DNA sensors is shown in a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network that was constructed using STRING. STRING is a database that allows searching in a list of possibly interacting genes or proteins (Szklarczyk et al, 2019). Following, the network was analyzed using the Cytoscape software. Cytoscape is an open-source software platform that allows us to visualize and analyze molecular interaction networks.

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Szklarczyk D, Gable AL, Lyon D, Junge A, Wyder S, Huerta-Cepas J, Simonovic M, Doncheva NT, Morris JH, Bork P, Jensen LJ, Mering CV. STRING v11: protein-protein association networks with increased coverage, supporting functional discovery in genome-wide experimental datasets. Nucleic Acids Res. 2019 Jan 8;47(D1):D607-D613. doi: 10.1093/nar/gky1131. PMID: 30476243; PMCID: PMC6323986.